The aluminum and ferric iron hydrate minerals found in some clay materials are not considered herein. Nonmarine conditions Ancient Sediments 355 Clay-mineral composition in relation to mode of origin. Chemical analyses of clays show them to be essentially silica, alumina, and water, frequently with appreciable quantities of iron, alkalies, and alkaline earths. Correns, 80 studying the marine-bottom samples col- lected by the Meteor, was among the first to investigate recent marine sediments by modern analytical techniques. As the spinel phases first appear, X-ray-diffraction lines are notably diffuse, and probably the phase does not have any particular composition.
SHROCK, Consulting Editor CLAY MINERALOGY Mc Graw-Hill Series in the Geological Sciences ROBERT R. More recently a very great interest in clay mineralogy has developed in Great Britain. 94 Glaesser, R., On the Mechanism of Formation of Montmorillonite-Acetone Com- plexes, Compt. The later phases developed at higher temperatures are dependent primarily on bulk composition, and here "inheritance" is of little importance.
SHROCK, Consulting Editor DE SITTER Structural Geology EWING, JARDETZKY, AND PRESS Elastic Waves in Layered Media GRIM Clay Mineralogy HEINRICH Microscopic Petrography SHROCK AND TWENHOFEL Principles of Invertebrate Paleontology CLAY MINERALOGY RALPH E. Mac Ewan 100 of the Rothampsted Agricultural Experi- ment Station has studied in detail the reaction of the clay minerals and organic compounds. Thus in the case of the develop- ment of mullite or cordierite, the controlling factor is probably the amount of magnesium present.
Clay materials have been studied by scientists for a great many years, but within the last 30 years there has been a tremendous expansion of vi Preface clay investigations. Data for the clay minerals Surface Area 308 Density 312 Kaolinite. Trans- formations of clay minerals at ordinary temperatures and pres- sures. There is, there- fore, a fundamental reason for placing the upper limit of the clay size grade at 2 microns. 22 Clay Mineralogy later worked out the theory of X-ray diffraction for such inter- layered mixtures, which has permitted their detailed study and evaluation. One might postulate that a quick crystallization of silica would lead to one of these forms, but that does not seem to be the case.
Many investigators approaching the subject from different disciplines have devoted all or most of their attention to clay materials. Geometry and properties of organic molecules Staining Tests for Clay Minerals 274 11. General conclusions from synthesis data rii Contents Clay Minerals of Hydrothennal Origin 323 Introduction. Clays contain varying percentages of clay-grade material and there- fore, varying relative amounts of nonclay-mineral and clay-mineral components. Teller, X-ray Interference in Partially Ordered Layer Lattices, J. Contributions by Gieseking 70 greatly enhanced our knowledge of the adsorption of organic ions and their influence on the structure of mont- morillonite. Bradley and Grim 67 picture the synthesis of the quartz as illustrated in Fig.
A consequence of such clay- mineral data has been to improve the quality of some ceramic products and to reduce the time necessary to fire them. The lamination is parallel to the bedding and has not been developed by postdepositional metamorphic action. 86 Pauling, L., The Structure of Micas and Related Minerals, Proc. Mehmel 79 of this group was the first to indicate 70 Gieseking, J. The Mg Si Os formed in the firing of some montmorillonites is com- parable with the "mesoenstatite" of Thilo and Rogge.