The city was rebuilt according to Pierre Dufau's plans with a focus on widening the streets to ease traffic congestion.
The city had a population of 136,105 according to the 2006 census.
It has one of the biggest university hospitals in France with a capacity of 1,200 beds.
The first known settlement at this location was Samarobriva ("Somme bridge"), the central settlement of the Ambiani, one of the principal tribes of Gaul. In 1113, the city was recognized by King Louis VI of France and joined to the Crown of France in 1185.
The town was given the name Ambianum by the Romans, meaning settlement of the Ambiani people. In 1597, Spanish soldiers held the city during the six-month Siege of Amiens, before Henry IV regained control.
Much of Picardy became the newly created department of Somme with Amiens as the departmental capital.